Cyril Joad, a philosopher who was writing a book called Journey Through the War Mind, had a talk with his pacifist friendD.Joad asked D. whether D. thought Chamberlain should have negotiated with Hitler after Hitler’s peace offer.Yes, of course,said D.: Wars should never be begun, and as soon as they were begun, they should be stopped. D. then listed off many war evils: the physical and moral mutilation, the intolerance, the public lying, the enthronement of the mob. He quoted from the text of Chamberlain’s refusal–that by discussing peace with Hitler, Britain would forfeit her honor and abandon her claim that international disputes should be settled by discussion and not by force.Our claim is, you see,D. told Joad,that international disputes are not to be settled by force, and this claim we propose to make good by settling an international dispute by force. We are fighting to show that you cannot, or at least must not, impose your will upon other people by violence.Which made no sense.
Once a war has started, D. said, the only thing to do is to get it stopped as soon as possible.Consequently I should negotiate with Hitler.
Joad said: Ah, but you couldn’t negotiate with Hitler because you couldn’t trust him–Hitler would break any agreement as soon as it benefited him to do so.
Suppose you were right,D. said–suppose that Hitler violated the peace agreement and England had to go back to war. What had they lost?If the worst comes to the worst, we can always begin the killing again.Even a day of peace was a day of peace. Joad found he had no ready answer to that.
Cyril Joad talked about the war with another acquaintance,Mrs. C.,a vigorous Tory. War was natural and unavoidable, said Mrs. C. The Germans weren’t human–they were brute blondperverted morons.
Joad asked C. what she would do with Germany, and a light came into her eyes.
I would make a real Carthaginian peace,she told Joad.Raze their cities to the ground, plough up the land and sow it afterwards with salt; and I would kill off one out of every five German women, so that they stopped breeding so many little Huns.
Mrs. C.’s ideas were shared by others, Joad had noticed; he’d recently read a letter to the editor about Germany in London’s News Chronicle:Quite frankly,said the letter, I would annihilate every living thing, man, woman, and child, beast, bird and insect; in fact, I would not leave a blade of grass growing even; Germany should be laid more desolate than the Sahara desert, if I could have my way.
The longer the war lasted, Joad believed, the more this kind of viciousness would multiply:AlreadyJoad wrote,Mr. Churchill was reviving the appellationHuns.
Editors, The Plainsman:
In a recent letter to the editor of The Plainsman, Jonathan Melville took a rather odd tack in his support for war against Iraq:
As for the argument thatIraq doesn’t pose a threat to us,this statement is completely irrelevant with respect to whether we wage war.
Mr. Melville may not believe that it is relevant whether the United States is unleashing its deadly military might in an act of self-defense or in an act of unprovoked conquest. This is, however, an odd position to take, and requires some explanation. Unfortunately, nowhere in his letter does Mr. Melville support his claim that the United States can be justified in waging wars based on aggression rather than self-defense. Nor does he provide any principle which he thinks is relevant to whether we wage war.
I would like to propose the following test for whether or not the United States is justified in going to war with Iraq. A war is justified if all of the following conditions are met:
- The Iraqi government possesses, or is likely soon to possess, significant
weapons of mass destruction.
- There is a specific threat that the Iraqi government will use such weapons against citizens of the United States.
- There is good reason to believe that a war will substantially remove this threat.
- There is good reason to believe that the destruction caused by the war will not be worse than the threat left without a war.
- There are no options for removing the threat through less destructive means than war.
Now, neither Jonathan Melville nor myself is a U.N. weapons inspector. Neither of us has any particular access to whether (1) is true or false. As it happens, Hans Blix, who is in charge of chemical and biological weapons inspections, and Mohamed El-Baradei, who is in charge of nuclear weapons inspections explicitly deny that they have discovered anything which should prompt a war against Iraq. Since Mr. Melville claims to know that Iraq does in fact possess banned chemical and biological weapons, and also claims to know that they are about to have nuclear weapons, perhaps he has access to secret intelligence that the U.N. weapons inspectors do not. But he can hardly expect us to take his assertions on blind faith.
But even if (1) turns out to be true, neither the Bush administration, nor Jonathan Melville, has bothered to present any evidence whatsoever for (2)-(4). There is no evidence at all that Saddam Hussein has any more plans to attack the United States now than he did for the past twelve years. Has something changed in that time to transform a broken, beaten, third world country into an imminent threat to the world’s last unchallenged superpower? If something has changed, then the War Party should point it out. But, as far as I can tell, no-one has shown that anything has changed except the belligerence of the ruling party in Washington, DC.
How about (5)? Are there any options other than war? Certainly there are. For example, the United States can step back and let the inspections process continue to work–as Hans Blix and Mohamed El-Baradei have indicated they would be willing and able to do.
Mr. Melville and his fellow epistolator Charlie Vaughan do not present any evidence for believing that (2)-(5) are true. Instead, they both try to use an analogy with the struggle against fascism as a historical backdrop for the Bush administration’s plans for war–by accusing peace supporters of favoring
appeasement of Saddam Hussein, as Neville Chamberlain favored
appeasement of Hitler.
The attempted comparison is a grotesque abuse of history. Saddam Hussein is certainly a ruthless dictator with a lot of blood on his hands. However, comparing him to Hitler simply blanks out one minor detail: while Hitler stood atop a massive military machine that conquered nearly all of Europe in a few short years, Hussein is the tinhorn dictator of a devastated third world country, completely surrounded by hostile and militarily superior forces. There is no
appeasement of Hussein to be done, because he poses a threat to no other country. What peace supporters ask is that we do not go out of our way to unleash the destruction of war on the Iraqi people when we can deal with Saddam Hussein through peaceful means.
Mr. Vaughan also angrily accuses Dr. El Moghazy of comments that are a
slap in the face of those currently serving in our military. But El Moghazy never criticized women and men in the military–rather, his criticism was directed against the Administration that is dead-set on putting those brave men and women in harm’s way. It seems to me that it is no disrespect to our troops to try to keep them from being sent off to die in another dumb foreign war. If I were in the military, I’d rather have people
support our troops by keeping me alive, rather than by giving me a medal after I’m dead.